1976 Church of the Brethren Statement
The Atlantic Northeast District Board recommends to the District Conference that the following query on alcohol be sent to the 1974 Annual Conference:
“Whereas, one of the historic affirmations of the Church of the Brethren has been ‘moderation in things good and abstinence from things harmful’ and since from earliest times the Brethren have understood this to include abstinence from beverage alcohol;
“Whereas, in our day a growing number of findings by scientific research in medical science and governmental agencies have documented the validity of this concern and have called alcohol our most serious drug problem;
“Whereas, the use of alcohol among our members has grown in the face of this impressive evidence;
The Atlantic Northeast District of the Church of the Brethren petitions Annual Conference to name a special committee to study ways in which individuals, local congregations and related institutions of the denomination might strengthen this historic ideal which has increasing modern relevance.”
Atlantic Northeast District Board
Clifford B. Huffman, Chairman
Harold Z. Bomberger, Secretary
Action of 1973 District Conference
Passed to Annual Conference.
C. Wayne Zunkel, Moderator
Grace Hollinger, Secretary
Action of 1974 Annual Conference
The recommendation of Standing Committee, presented by Curtis Rhudy, was that the request of the query be granted and that a committee of five persons be elected to study the issues raised by the query. This was approved and the following persons were elected to this committee: A. Stauffer Curry, I. J. Musselman, Minva Reid, Charles E. Weaver, and David Wine.
1975 Report of the Committee
The Committee is pursuing its assignment by (1) conducting a survey of alcohol use among ministers, laity, and in the educational institutions of the church; (2) studying firsthand the work being done in alcoholism treatment and prevention; and (3) studying the many issues related to alcohol use based on current research in an attempt to make its report as relevant as possible. Therefore, the Committee asks for more time to complete its work. The Committee may have a verbal progress report to the 1975 Annual Conference.
A. Stauffer Curry, Chairman
I. J. Musselman
Charles E. Weaver
Action of 1975 Annual Conference: The report was presented by A. Stauffer Curry with others on the committee present. The report was adopted, which granted the committee additional time for their study. In addition the scope of the committee was enlarged to include a study of and recommendations for actions which congregations can lake to cancel advertisements of alcoholic beverages, or at least minimize the use of mass media to promote the use and sale of alcoholic beverages. In 1972, a query was adopted which assigned to the General Board the task of studying ways of “bringing to an end” the use of advertisements of alcoholic beverages, drugs and tobacco (Minutes 1972. p. 97-98). The General Board assigned this work to a task team. By this current action, this assignment is transferred from the General Board to the Study Committee, and the two persons on the General Board task team, G. William Sayers and Gary Rowe, are added to the study committee.
1976 Report of the Committee
The committee interpreted its work initially as defined by Standing Committee in its recommendation adopted by the 1974 Annual Conference, namely, “to study the issues raised by the query” on alcohol.
The 1975 Annual Conference added to the committee’s assignment one given to the General Board by the 1972 Annual Conference to study “how we can best work to bring an end to the advertisements and commercials” designed to sell beer, wine, liquor, drugs, and tobacco. The content of this aspect of the report is in parts of sections (8) and (14), and all of (15).
The committee is eager for the church to know that it brought to its study a diverse background of experience as follows: an AA member—recovered alcoholic who experienced job and family disruption when an alcoholic; a moderate drinker who experienced family disruption because of alcoholism of spouse; a former alcohol abuser now an abstainer; two moderate drinkers with no alcohol problem; an abstainer who grew up in an abstinence tradition and never had occasion to change; an abstainer who grew up in that tradition and has been a vigorous abstinence-educator for much of a lifetime.
The committee considered a wide range of issues and decided upon those which it felt were most important. This breakdown is reflected in the sections which follow.
Definitions Used in This Report
For purposes of consistency of reference, the committee used the following definitions, recognizing that other definitions may be in use.
- Alcohol Use. The act of drinking an alcohol beverage (e.g., a glass of beer, or wine, a cocktail, a highball) for other than religious purposes. The term “drinking” does not mean excessive drinking, problem drinking, or drunkenness.
- Problem Drinking. Excessive drinking which causes more than occasional harm to the drinker or others close to him.
- Alcoholism. A progressive and chronic disease manifested by repeated implicative drinking so as to cause injury to the drinker’s health or to his social or economic functioning (Mark Keller).
- Adult. Individuals over the age of eighteen.
- Youth. Individuals eighteen years of age and younger.
(1) The Prevalence of Alcohol Use in Society as a Whole
Authorities generally agree that at least one drinker out of 17 ultimately becomes a problem drinker. Many contend that one out of ten is a more accurate figure. It is estimated that about half, or over 100 million, of the U.S. population drinks alcohol. Gallup polls have shown that 32% of our adult population are total abstainers and 17% are infrequent drinkers. Thus not quite half (32% plus 17%, or 49%, or a few less than 100 million) are infrequent drinkers. About 8-10 million of our population are problem drinkers.
A problem of growing concern is the increase in the use of alcohol by youth. A study by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (a federal government agency) released in October, 1975, showed that drug and alcohol use are on the increase among youth. Multiple drug use, including alcohol, is a growing phenomenon among youth. Fortunately, while multiple use peaks among the 18 to 20 age bracket, it falls off in the mid-twenties, early thirties, and the forties for various drugs. This same study showed that increased use of drugs and alcohol among young people is “alarming,” to use the term of Dr. Robert DuPont, Director of NIDA. One out of five 13-year-olds interviewed in these studies had used alcohol.
Studies by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA, a sister federal agency to NIDA) shows similar trends. In passing it should be noted that both NIDA and NIAAA are excellent sources of information and can be addressed at Rockwall Building, 11400 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852, and 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20852, respectively. A nongovernmental agency which makes excellent studies and releases excellent materials is the Drug Abuse Council, Inc., 1828 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, a recent one being “Alcohol and Drugs at Work.” Other sources of materials will be given later in this report.
(2) The Prevalence of the Problem in the Church as Seen by District Executives
Exhibit 1 shows the three pages of the Survey Form for District Executives and the four pages of the Pastors Survey Form. The 16 district executives who returned the form represented areas in which 758 pastors serve; of these 46, or 6.0%, were thought to use alcohol while the executives estimated that 701, or 92.5%, do not use alcohol. It was estimated that two had a problem with alcohol. The executives further estimated that 77% of the adults in their church areas do not use alcohol, 20.1% use alcohol, 5.6% had a problem with alcohol, and 1.9% were alcoholics.
They estimated that 69.2% of the youth in their church areas do not use alcohol, 27% do use alcohol, 9.5% have a problem with alcohol, while 1.3% are alcoholics. Nine executives thought there was an increase in adult usage, while three estimated there was no increase. Eleven estimated there was an increase of alcohol among youth, while one thought there was no increase. Nine executives estimated there was an increase of drinking among women, while three estimated no increase. Four preferred not to make an estimate.
(3) Alcohol Use in the Church as Seen by Pastors
Exhibit 1 shows the four sheets in the survey form sent to pastors of all our churches, as well as to persons in charge of churches where there were no pastors. The 272 pastors who filled in the survey forms reported there are 42,309 adults and 11,424 youth in their congregations. Thirty-five of these pastors, or 13.3%, said they use alcohol, while 228, or 86.7%, reported they do not use alcohol. These pastors estimated that 27,622, or 65.3% of their adults do not use alcohol, while 10,729, or 25.4%, use alcohol. They reported 918, or 2.2%, were problem drinkers while 294, or 0.7% were alcoholic. The number of adults who annually approached their pastor about matters related to the use of alcohol was 476, or 1.1%.
These pastors estimated the following about the 11,424 youth in their parishes: 8,050, or 70.5%, do not use alcohol while 1,419, or 12.4%, use alcohol; 372, or 3.3%, are problem drinkers, while 23, or 0.2%, are alcoholics; (1,560 not accounted for); 254, or 2.2%, approach the pastor annually about matters related to alcohol problems.
Of the pastors who filled in the forms, 79, or 30.0%, estimated an increase in adult usage over the past five years, while 149, or 56.7%, estimated no increase in usage; 73, or 27.8%, estimated an increase in usage among youth, while 151, or 57.4%, estimated no increase; 61, or 23.2%, estimated an increase among women who use alcohol, while 159, or 60.5%, estimated no increase.
One question, “Do you find alcohol acceptable or unacceptable for members of your congregation?” was answered as follows: unacceptable 73, or 27.8%; acceptable 199, or 75.7%. A number commented, however, that the question did not offer sufficient options to express their opinions, and therefore the 27.8% and 75.7% may be subject to some error.
Pastors were asked how they handle alcohol-related problems brought to them, and replied as follows:
71 cases—personal counseling
61 cases—referred to other agencies, often AA
16 cases—point to a new life in Christ
15 cases—the pastor listens
14 cases—offers and recommends prayer
11 cases—involve the family
11 cases—make the person aware of the effects of alcohol
8 cases—make them see the need for help
5 cases—make them see alcohol as a crutch
5 cases—show acceptance and trust
5 cases—do what is best for them
4 cases—help to see why they use alcohol
4 cases—give them sermons
4 cases—talk to them
2 cases each—they won’t listen anyway so why try; show the money and other costs to them; find the cause; remove temptation; be a friend; teach against the use of alcohol
1 case each—shocked and couldn’t do a thing; I give my opinion; drive out demons; involve the parish; encourage abstinence; show that they have a personality problem; involve the spouse; give medical help; ask laity to help; give information; use logic and reason; show them materials.
The survey form asked what pastors thought of the form and the following answers were given:
21 replies—there is no acceptable level of drinking (one pastor suggested the committee should have used the term “non-problem” drinking)
14 replies—effort is very good
11 replies—only an estimate
10 replies—too hard to know accurately
8 replies—not an honest response
6 replies—too shallow
5 replies—one-sided toward the drinker
4 replies—words are ambiguous
2 replies each—concerned about confidentiality of replies; no need for a committee; not relevant
1 reply each—adequate; unimpressive; frustrating.
The pastors were asked what they would like to see in the report and their replies fell into the following categories:
56 replies—encourage abstinence
25 replies—make a biblical emphasis
23 replies—do not condemn those who use alcohol
20 replies—emphasize the need for more church help
19 replies—want composite report of surveys (Note: The committee attempted to do this.)
16 replies—show the effects of all drugs
13 replies—recommend actual study materials
13 replies—take a stand regardless of what stand may be
13 replies—show the extent of the problem
12 replies—give scientific data
12 replies—give moderate approach
12 replies—express a concern about grain used in alcohol production in light of need to feed the world’s hungry
11 replies—show the risks of alcohol use
11 replies—show cost in welfare, crime, and broken homes
11 replies—show a good scriptural basis of abstinence
11 replies—show the effects on health
11 replies—show the power of God to help
11 replies—recommend study booklets
10 replies—show the cost and effects on stewardship
9 replies—give the case for moderation
9 replies—show “hell and sin”
9 replies—broader study to include all drugs
9 replies—show why alcohol is a problem
9 replies—emphasize education
8 replies—show alcohol use as the number one drug problem
7 replies—work to prohibit advertising of alcohol
7 replies—give a list of helping and educational agencies
7 replies—have open discussion of the issues
7 replies—show accident potentialities
7 replies—do more teaching
7 replies—show that there is no scriptural basis for abstinence
6 replies—help those who need drugs
5 replies—show why people drink
5 replies—show that drinking is the free choice of the individual
4 replies—show the change in persons by alcohol use
4 replies—show that God has the answer
3 replies—individuals alone are responsible
3 replies—show that total abstinence is no longer “in”
3 replies—show misuse versus use
2 replies—waste of time and effort to have this committee
2 replies—show why there is good and bad in alcohol use
2 replies—show Brethren history
1 reply each—label alcohol as harmful like cigarettes are labeled; emphasize use of group therapy; show why an increase in use; describe Bethany Seminary’s emphasis; take away drivers’ licenses of alcohol abusers; show the number of war deaths versus alcohol deaths; the employment of members in alcohol manufacture and sale.
(4) The Prevalence of the Problem as Seen by a Self-Selected Group of Annual Conference Goers
A survey form was made available on the committee exhibit table at the 1975 Annual Conference in Dayton and 156 persons filled it in. The factors that led these people to respond, while thousands of others did not, can only be guessed. They may have had a prior interest in the alcohol problem; or they may have had leisure time to browse at exhibit tables: they may have been ardent delegates who felt an obligation to participate in all phases of conference activity; they may have been abstinence or moderate drinking advocates and therefore responded.
Of the 156 respondents, 60.5% were male and 39.5% were female. Of these respondents 35, or 22.4%, said they use alcohol, while 121, or 77.6%, said they do not. Sixteen were under 18 years of age; 43 were 19-30 years of age; 35 were 31-45 years old; 48 were 46-60; 13 were 61 or older: 1, not given.
Of the users, 18 drank 1-2 glasses per week and 12 said they used 2-3 glasses per week; the rest did not respond. Twelve of the users said they drank beer; 12 drank wine; 3 drank hard liquor: 1 drank wine and hard liquor, while 3 drank beer and wine.
The replies to the question, “With whom do you most often drink?” were: friends, 21; spouses, 5; parents. 3: relatives, 1; alone, 1. To the question, “Where?” the replies were: home, 22; parties, 8: restaurants, 4.
The question, “How many of your friends do not use alcohol?” was answered as follows: 1 to 2, 5 replies; few do not drink, 29 replies; half do not drink, 19 replies: majority do not drink, 60 replies; none do not drink, 1 reply; all do not drink, 5 replies.
The question, “How many of your friends do use alcohol?” was answered as follows: 1 to 2, 8 replies; few use alcohol, 51; half use alcohol, 19 replies; majority use alcohol, 33; none use alcohol, 6 replies; all use alcohol, 5 replies.
Three persons said alcohol use created a problem for them; 55 replied that alcohol use did not create a problem for them.
Fifty-three said alcohol use by friends created a problem for them: 71 replied that alcohol use by friends did not create a problem for them.
The types of problems created by friends’ use are as follows (some responders gave more than one): anti-social behavior, 29; drinking and driving, 19; personality change, 17; trouble with family and friends, 13; sickness, 9; problem at school, 9; problem in job, 8; others, 4.
Two persons worried at some time that they had a problem; 44 did not. No one ever sought another’s help about their drinking. Nineteen had alcoholics in the family; 94 did not.
On the question what they would like to see in the report the replies were as follows: recommend abstinence position, 21; encourage General Board to develop curriculum materials on the subject, 8; leave it to the individual, 8; bring in health factors, 7; bring in problem of advertising, 7; show that Christ can help, 6; make a biblical emphasis, 6; take definite stance one way or the other, 5; emphasize importance of treatment, 5; be non-judgmental and helpful, 4; show the amount of consumption in the church, 4; emphasize importance of teaching youth, 3; show why people drink, 3; don’t support businesses that support alcohol in any way, 2; emphasize responsible use, 2; need information on first drink, 1; encompass tobacco, speed, etc., 1; raise children how to drink, 1; show that alcohol is prescribed by physicians, 1; take a stand for moderation, 1; keep in mind non-Brethren traditions, 1; do not allow a drinker into the Church of the Brethren, 1; emphasize control legislation, 1; show ways to counteract, 1; give sources of information, 1: show past positions of the church, 1; show social effects, 1; study use in colleges, 1; show economic factors, 1.
Thirteen thought the survey form was “great,” 4 thought it was slanted toward user.
(5) The Prevalence of the Problem as Seen by up to 100 Randomly Selected Upper Classmen in Each of Our Seven Educational Institutions
A total of 378 students, 187 men and 191 women, filled in the survey form; 310 or 78% used alcohol while 87 or 22% did not drink.
These students’ grades generally fell into the normal distribution curve with 47 in the 2.00 to 2.49 range, 101 in the 2.50 to 2.99 range; 134 in the 3.00 to 3.49; and 78 in the 3.50 to 4.00 range.
The greatest number, 175, were 21 years of age; 131 were 22 years old; 25 were 23 years old; 33 were over 23; while 20 were younger than 21.
Of those who drank, 86 did so rarely; 98 once per week; 81, 2 to 3 times per week; 24 drank 4 to 5 times per week; while 9 drank more often.
On the question of how much they drank at a time, 86 drank 1 to 2 glasses; 111, 2 to 3 glasses; 44 drank 4 to 5 glasses; 39 drank more; 4 reported drinking varying amounts.
On the kinds of drink, 158 drank beer; 49 drank wine; 69 drank hard liquor; 33, beer and hard liquor: 13, wine and hard liquor; and 7 drank beer and wine.
On the question of with whom they drank, the responses were as follows: with friends, 240; with relatives, 20; and with spouses, 9.
On the question of where students drank, the replies are as follows: in restaurants, 35; at bars, 79; at home, 121; at parties, 149; in cars, 5; at school, 31.
An interesting set of replies was given to the question at what age students took their first drink: under 12 years of age, 71; 12 to 15, 86; 16 to 18 years old, 54; 19, 26; 20, 16; 21 years of age, 7; 22, 1; older, 1.
On the question of where the first drink was taken, the replies follow: home, 164; friends’ homes, 39; restaurants, 6; car, 10; parties, 24; high school, 4; camp, 5; college, 29; church, 1; other places, 30. To the question with whom the first drink was taken, 167 said with friends, 151 with family, and with dates, 8.
On the question of how many friends do not use alcohol, 54 said 1 or 2 of their friends do not drink; 153 said only a few of their friends do not drink; 29 said half of their friends do not drink; 42 said a majority of their friends do not drink; one said all their friends are nondrinkers, while 70 said none of their friends are nonusers.
On the question of how many friends do use alcohol, 8 said 12 friends do; 114 said all their friends are users; 30 said half their friends are users; 42 said a majority of their friends are users; 1 said none of his friends are users.
Sixty-two said alcohol created a problem for them, while 294 said it did not create a problem.
One hundred forty-eight said some friend’s use created problems, while 213 said their friends’ use does not create problems for them.
When asked to check the types of problems created, the following tally was made; trouble with family and friends, 33; problem on the job, 13; antisocial behavior, 52; problem at school, 25; personality change, 39; drinking/driving problems, 50; other problems, 18.
Twenty students said they had worried if they had a problem, while 325 never had such a worry; 8 had sought another’s help, while 325 had not. Thirty-three reported an alcoholic in the family, while 320 had no alcoholics in the family; 52 students want further information, while 286 do not.
On the matter of whether student drinking had increased since they began college (usually over the past 3 years), 163 estimated it had increased; 11 estimated a decrease; 189 thought there was no change.
On women’s drinking, 188 thought there was an increase, while 9 thought there was a decrease and 163 thought there was no change.
On the matter of faculty drinking, 59 thought there was an increase, 3 thought a decrease, and 178 thought there was no change.
The religious affiliation of those responding was given as follows: Brethren, 91; Methodist, 58; Presbyterian, 38; Catholic, 34; First Christian, 24; Christian, 24; Lutheran, 18: Baptist, 11; Episcopalian, 10; Church of Christ, 7; Mennonite, 4; Apostolic, 3; Agnostic, 3: Buddhist, 2; “God,” 1; Islam, 1; Jewish, 1; Church of Man, 1; Adventist, 1; Communist, 1; none, 29.
The extent of drinking reported by Brethren versus non-Brethren was not studied except for one group of over 80 students. Among the Brethren, 72.7% drank while 27.3% did not drink. Of the non-Brethren, 78.3% drank, while 21.7% did not drink. Obviously, the extent of difference between the two groups was not large.
(6) The Nature and Causes of Alcohol Use and Abuse
A continuing debate among treatment specialists and others is whether alcohol abuse and alcoholism is a disease. The best answer the committee has found is that it is a disease but, unlike most other diseases, it is at least partly under the control of the patient. Ruth Fox, a well-known worker in the field, is reported to have told her alcoholic clients, “You have a disease, but isn’t it wonderful, it’s under your control.” The degree of control or motivation to be cured varies greatly from person to person.
The tendency to depression, including feelings of inadequacy, among many people—most at some time in life—is a factor in drinking. People seek ways of avoiding the agony of depression and drinking is one of the means they try. Some say there is a genetic factor underlying the drink habit in certain persons; some apparently inherited trait can be a factor in others. A physiological or metabolic cause-factor seems to exist in some persons; the body reacts in such a way as to lead to a continuing desire to drink once the habit is begun. The debate continues whether or not there is a simple addictive personality type. Evidence is that there is no simple addictive personality but that causes of drinking are quite complex.
Many persons simply enjoy the elation and euphoria—sense of well-being—which comes from drinking, especially if done in social groups. Some ethnic groups seem to pass on drinking customs from generation to generation. It can be almost an insult not to accept a drink of wine when visiting in certain ethnic homes—a situation faced by at least one committee member. The drinking customs of other ethnic groups such as the Irish. French. Jews, and others are repeatedly referred to in the scientific literature on alcohol use.
Unfavorable childhood environment in the home can be a major factor leading to drink. Poor environment in the community such as life in the ghettos and/or slums can be a major factor.
The committee senses there are congregations in our Brotherhood where social drinking is on the increase chiefly as a matter of emulating the drinking habits of the community as a whole.
Through the centuries social drinking has been a part of the life of many people and cultures, although there have always been subcultures and even major cultural groups which have practiced abstinence.
In dealing with alcohol abusers and alcoholics, churchmen should be aware of the many causes. They should also be aware of the many manifestations of alcohol problems, such as the instant alcoholic who becomes addicted in a short period of time; the abuser who develops a problem gradually over decades; the worker who does quite well on his job but is a problem drinker at night and weekends; the periodic binge type who several times a year incapacitates himself; the user who drinks regularly over a lifetime without any apparent harmful effects.
(7) The Consequences and Effects of Alcohol Use and Abuse
One committee member is a recovered alcoholic and gave dramatic testimony to the devastating effects of alcohol abuse. The member testifies that alcohol, being a depressant ‘and narcotic, causes the user to experience a depressed state leading to ever increasing depression with extreme feelings of remorse, guilt, inadequacy, and unworthiness.
The use of alcohol creates strain in all family relationships leading to alienation of spouse and even possible divorce. The strain in relationships extends beyond the family with irrational behavior in all real relationships with neighbors, at work, in citizenship responsibilities, and the like.
Alcohol abuse reduces the sense of responsibility because of loss of judgment. It squelches all spiritual and ethical growth of the addicted. It can cause mental breakdown and protracted mental lapses. It causes personal financial crises because of expenditures for alcohol and because of wage and job loss. This member’s experience and contribution to the committee was invaluable.
One of the most dangerous aspects of alcohol use is highway accidents. It is variously estimated that 30 to 40% of car accidents are alcohol related. Fifty percent of the annual 50,000 car accident deaths annually are alcohol related. Half of all murders are alcohol related, either the victim or the criminal. One fourth of all suicides are alcohol related. Alcohol abusers are more than 7 times more likely to be separated or divorced. Even the casual or social drinker becomes a life-threatening danger when driving. And the admonition, “If you drink don’t drive,” is not viable because most drinkers deny, when under the influence, that they are threats on the highway. To the committee, this is one of the most dangerous situations growing out of alcohol use, with thousands of lives sacrificed needlessly on the highway.
The physical effects of alcohol are seen in many parts of the body. Details cannot be given here, but researchers have isolated damage to brain tissues, heart and blood vessel tissues, the liver, stomach, intestines, muscles, and other parts of the body. Liver damage, often reversible in early stages if the patient stops drinking, is perhaps the most serious physical disorder and often is the direct cause of death. Alcohol has much more serious physical complications than morphine, heroin, cocaine, and other drugs.
It is estimated that there are 9,000,000 problem drinkers in the United States, with 100.000 added annually. These are persons who often maintain jobs, have home life of a sort, function in society with some adequacy, but still are sources of great trouble with wife and family, employers, colleagues, and, of course, most of all, to themselves.
The total deterioration of the Skid Row or Bowery-type alcoholic is well known. Families, jobs, and controls seem to be gone. Many seek inpatient care in hospitals to flee momentarily the discomfort of street life, often to return to street life after some days of treatment and rest. The near-total deterioration is seen in alcoholics who regularly frequent outpatient clinics. With many, life is a constant round of going from treatment center to treatment center to receive food, clothing, and medical care. While some move on to control of the problem, the vast majority simply continue the cycle of treatment and regression.
The disruption of the family of alcohol abusers is well known. Divorce of abusers is very high, even though the abusers can work at their jobs after a fashion.
Large corporations have alcoholism treatment centers on the premises. If otherwise good workers are made inefficient by alcohol use, they are given help by the company or agency.
The progression from social or moderate drinking should be recognized by pastors and others. Often a person becomes a problem drinker or alcoholic only after 10, 20, or 30 years of alcohol use. The progression often is manifest as follows: (1) the user becomes more and more intoxicated after regular cocktail parties; (2) he or she stays after the others leave the business luncheon for an extra drink; (3) the user drinks alone; (4) heavy drinking at night, or over weekends; (5) leaving of home by his wife or children, or being forced out of his home; (6) change in mood over a long time, not just after one party; (7) deterioration of energy, efficiency, and general morale; (8) loss of a job is an end result of the progression to a full-grown case of alcoholism.
(8) Alcohol Use in Relation to Other Drugs
At one time alcohol problems were considered to be quite separate from problems of other drugs. Recent studies show that use of alcohol can be related to the use of caffeine, nicotine, barbiturates, amphetamines, tranquilizers, aspirin, marijuana, LSD, opiates, and others. The committee feels that any stud